It’s hard to say which side won. I think Europe is the winner. In reality, France and Germany made a lot of compromises to save their plan, which was not opposed; in fact, not many countries. There were the “frugal” – the Netherlands, Austria, Sweden, Denmark – and their Finnish ally, viscerally opposed to this plan which, because it is a federal and integration instrument, profoundly changes the model of construction. European. They therefore paid hard for their rallying and in particular obtained a reduction in the amount of subsidies (from 500 billion to 390 billion) and an increase in the discounts they benefit from on the European budget. In the east, Poland and Hungary were not hostile to the recovery plan but did not want it to be an opportunity to establish a link between respect for the rule of law and the disbursement of European funds. . Even if a mechanism has been put in place with this in mind, it is still very vague and ineffective, so it can be said that they have won their case.
In addition, to access the manna from the Just Transition Fund, which helps the most carbon-intensive economies in their climate transition, Poland should have undertaken to pursue the objective of carbon neutrality by 2050, an objective that ‘was given by the EU during a summit in December 2019 and to which, at the time, it refused to subscribe. This is no longer in question, and the government of Mateusz Morawiecki will be able to have access to this money, if it does not call into question the principle according to which the European Union, as a whole, wants to respect the Paris climate agreement.